The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.
Ancient Baltic peoples arrived in the area during the second millennium BC, and four distinct tribal realms in Latvia's territory were identifiable towards the end of the first millennium AD.
From the mid-1940s Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic was subject to Soviet economic control and saw considerable Russification of its peoples.
However, Latvian culture and infrastructures survived and, during the period of Soviet liberalisation under Mikhail Gorbachev, Latvia once again took a path towards independence, eventually succeeding in August 1991 to be recognised by Russia the following month.
As geology of the Baltic Sea indicates, the coastline then reached further inland.
The earliest tools found near Salaspils date to the late Paleolithic age, circa 12,000 years ago, and belong to the Swiderian culture.
The Ice Age in Latvia ended 14,000–12,000 years ago.Since then, under restored independence, Latvia has become a member of the United Nations, entered NATO and joined the European Union.Latvia's economy suffered greatly during the Great Recession which caused the 2008 Latvian financial crisis.The first human settlers arrived here during the Paleolithic Age 11,000–12,000 years ago.
They were hunters, who following the reindeer herds camped along the rivers and shore of the Baltic Ice Lake.These people from the Kunda culture made weapons and tools from flint, antler, bone and wood.